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What is Bread?
Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking. Throughout recorded history it has been popular around the world and is one of the oldest artificial foods, having been of importance since the dawn of agriculture.
There are many combinations and proportions of types of flour and other ingredients, and also of different traditional recipes and modes of preparation of bread. As a result, there are wide varieties of types, shapes, sizes, and textures of breads in various regions. Bread may beleavened by one of many different processes, ranging from reliance on naturally occurring microbes (so-called "sourdough" recipes) to addition of chemicals or industrially produced yeast to high-pressure artificial aeration methods during preparation or baking. However, some products are cooked before they can leaven, sometimes for traditional or religious reasons. Many non-cereal ingredients may be included, ranging from fruits and nuts to various fats. Commercial bread in particular commonly contains additives, some of them non-nutritive, to improve flavor, texture, color, shelf life, or ease of manufacturing.
Depending on local custom and convenience, bread may be served in various forms at any meal of the day. It also is eaten as a snack, or used as an ingredient in other culinary preparations, such as fried items coated in crumbs to prevent sticking, or the bland main component of a bread pudding, or stuffings designed to fill cavities or retain juices that otherwise might drip away.
Partly because of its importance as a basic foodstuff, bread has a social and emotional significance beyond its importance in nutrition; it plays essential roles in religious rituals and secular culture. Its prominence in daily life is reflected in language, where it appears in proverbs, colloquial expressions ("He stole the bread from my mouth"), in prayer ("Give us this day our daily bread") and even in the etymology of words, such as "companion" and "company" (from Latin com "with" + panis "bread").
What is Wine?
Wine (from Latin vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes, generally Vitis vinifera or its hybrids with Vitis labrusca or Vitis rupestris. Grapes ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, water, or other nutrients, as yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine. These variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, theterroir (the special characteristics imparted by geography, geology, climate, viticultural methods and plant genetics), and the production process. Many countries define legal appellations intended to define styles and qualities of wine; these typically restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production.
There are also wines made from fermenting other fruits or cereals, whose names generally specify their base: fruit wine, rice wine, with some having specific names, e.g. cider for apple wine.
Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest known evidence of wine comes from Georgia (Caucasus), where 8000-year-old wine jars were found. Traces of wine have also been found in Iran with 7000-year-old wine jars and in Armenia, in the 6100-year old Areni- 1 winery, the earliest known winery. Wine had reached the Balkans by c. 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancientGreece, Thrace and Rome. Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects, which are evident at normal serving sizes.
Wines made from plants other than grapes include rice wine (such as sake) and various fruit wines made from other fruits such as plums or cherries; some well known ones are hard cider from apples, perry from pears, pomegranate wine, and elderberry wine.
Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; Judaism also incorporates it in the Kiddush and Christianity in the Eucharist